Micro base station power supply is designed for 5G communications market development of power system, contains the power supply module (rectifier, monitoring unit, communication unit and power distribution unit) and lithium battery module, modular, fully digital and high energy density etc, support […]
Almost all satellites are powered by solar cells – but solar cells are heavy. While conventional high-performance cells reach up to three watts of electricity per gram, perovskite and organic hybrid cells could provide up to ten times that amount. A research […]
Almost all satellites are powered by solar cells – but solar cells are heavy. While conventional high-performance cells reach up to three watts of electricity per gram, perovskite and organic hybrid cells could provide up to ten times that amount. A research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has now tested this type of cell in space for the first time.Perovskite and organic solar cells are promising options for future generations of solar cells. Over recent years, their efficiency has rapidly caught up with that of conventional silicon-based cells.“The best perovskite solar cells currently achieve efficiency levels of 25 percent,” says Peter Müller-Buschbaum, Professor of Functional Materials at the TUM Department of Physics. “These thin solar cells, less than one micrometer thick, applied to ultra-thin, flexible synthetic sheet, are extremely lightweight. They can therefore produce nearly 30 watts per gram.”
Manufacture at room temperature
This is only possible thanks to a decisive advantage of the new solar cells: Production of silicon solar cells requires very high temperatures and elaborate processes. Perovskite cells and organic semiconductors, on the other hand, can be manufactured at room temperature from solution.
“These organic solutions are very easy to process,” explains the lead author Lennart Reb. “Thus the technologies open up new fields of application in which conventional solar cells were simply too unwieldy or too heavy – and that also applies far beyond the aerospace sector.”
Test flight into space
Two different types of organic and perovskite solar cells were tested in space for the first time on a research flight as part of the MAPHEUS 8 program at the European Space and Sounding Rocket Range in Kiruna, Sweden. The rocket reached a height of nearly 240 kilometers.
“Our MAPHEUS program allows us rapidly to implement experiments in a zero-gravity environment, offering exciting research findings,” says Professor Andreas Meyer, co-author and Head of the DLR Institute of Materials Physics in Space. “This time it went particularly quick: it took us less than a year to progress from the initial idea to the maiden flight of the solar cells as part of the MAPHEUS 8 program.”
Power generation under exeptional conditions
“Electrical measurements during the flight and the evaluation after recovery of the rocket showed that perovskite and organic solar cells can achieve their potential in terms of expected performance in orbit height,” reports Professor Müller-Buschbaum. “Our measurements are therefore of great scientific value.”
The solar cells also generated electrical energy under diffuse incidence of light. “Cells turned away from the sunlight, which received only sparse lighting exclusively from the earth during the flight, still supplied electricity,” says Reb.
Due to their much thinner thickness, the new solar cells could therefore also be used in much dimmer light, for example on missions to the outer solar system on which the sun is too weak for conventional space solar cells.
According to DLR material scientist Andreas Meyer, “it would not be the first time that innovations are first established as space technologies but go on to be used around the world in other sectors. One reason for this is probably the very strict requirements that space places on all technical components.”
Read Perovskite and Organic Solar Cells Rocketed Into Space for the First Time for more on this research.
Reference: “Perovskite and Organic Solar Cells on a Rocket Flight” by Lennart K. Reb, Michael Böhmer, Benjamin Predeschly, Sebastian Grott, Christian L. Weindl, Goran I. Ivandekic, Renjun Guo, Christoph Dreißigacker, Roman Gernhäuser, Andreas Meyer and Peter Müller-Buschbaum, 12 August 2020, Joule.
The research project received funding from the DFG German research association as part of the e-conversion cluster of excellence, from the Alberta / Technical University of Munich International Graduate School for Functional Hybrid Materials (ATUMS), and as part of the Solar Technologies Go Hybrid (SolTech) Bavarian Research Association TUM.solar project.
A newly proposed inverter design relies on a solar charge controller featuring maximum power point tracking. It is based on an artificial fish-swarm algorithm, which offers high convergence speeds, flexibility, fault tolerance, and accuracy. A newly proposed inverter design relies on a […]
A newly proposed inverter design relies on a solar charge controller featuring maximum power point tracking. It is based on an artificial fish-swarm algorithm, which offers high convergence speeds, flexibility, fault tolerance, and accuracy.
A newly proposed inverter design relies on a solar charge controller featuring maximum power point tracking. It is based on an artificial fish-swarm algorithm, which offers high convergence speeds, flexibility, fault tolerance, and accuracy.
Researchers from the University of Science and Technology of China have designed a novel topology for a bidirectional inverter for uninterruptible power supply (UPS).
The proposed inverter design, with battery backup, relies on a maximum power point tracking (MPPT)solar charge controller based on an artificial fish-swarm algorithm, which is inspired by the collective movement of fish and their instinctive behaviors. This algorithm is said to offer high convergence speeds, flexibility, fault tolerance, and accuracy. The scientists said the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, which is most commonly used for PV applications, has a number of drawbacks.
The newly developed algorithm works according to a two-step process. The first step involves a variable perturbation observation method to find the maximum power point of the system. In the second step, the proposed device makes use of the fish-swarm algorithm to rapid-search and track the global maximum power point.
The PSpice software was used for the model simulation, which was aimed at obtaining the volt-ampere characteristic curve of PV system output. “The solar array simulator was used to verify the effect of maximum power point tracking at different light intensities,” the researchers said.
The open circuit voltage of the simulator was 193.785 volts, while the short circuit current was 2.6786 ampere. The ambient temperature was 27 C and the lighting power density was 1,000 W/m2. The simulation showed that the MPPT tracking has an average efficiency of 99.5% and a maximum efficiency of 99.9%.
“According to the curves of the output power, voltage and current of the solar panel in 60 seconds and the Boost circuit can track the maximum power point around 10 seconds,” the researchers said.
The inverter is suitable for uninterrupted power supply in case of grid failure. “The distortion rate of the grid-connected current waveform was within 2% and the DC current component was less than 0.5%,” the scientists said. “The full bridge inverter can be reverse rectified by connecting the reverse diode in parallel with the full-bridge switch. It provides the possibility for the power generation to charge the battery.”
They presented the new inverter topology in “Bidirectional energy storage photovoltaic grid‐connected inverter application system,” which was recently published in the International Journal of Energy Research.
Group spinoff Maxeon Solar Technologies will produce the new Performance 5 modules with bifacial mono-PERC solar cells, made from large format eight-inch G12 wafers. The panels boast an efficiency of 21.2%. SunPower, which is majority owned by French energy giant Total, is planning […]
Group spinoff Maxeon Solar Technologies will produce the new Performance 5 modules with bifacial mono-PERC solar cells, made from large format eight-inch G12 wafers. The panels boast an efficiency of 21.2%.
Group spinoff Maxeon Solar Technologies will commercialize the Performance 5 line in the fourth quarter. The high-efficiency, bifacial mono-PERC solar panels will be made with large format eight-inch G12 wafers and will have an efficiency of 21.2%.
“Our release of the new SunPower Performance 5 panels comes along with a renewed commitment to large-scale installations supported by significant manufacturing capacity scale-up of shingled cell panel technology by our Huansheng Photovoltaic (HSPV) joint venture in China,” SunPower said.
Maxeon Solar Technologies is also owned by Tianjin Zhonghuan Semiconductor, which was recently acquired by TCL , one of China’s biggest electronics manufacturers. SunPower’ss HSPV joint venture with Zhonghuan will increase production capacity at its three factories in China from around 2 GW to 8 GW by 2021. The first of the three manufacturing facilities will be fully ramped up by the end of this year.
SunPower announced plans to spin off its manufacturing business into a new company last November. It also recently decided to sell its solar O&M business to Canadian mid-market private equity firm Clairvest Group for an undisclosed sum.
New solar panels advancements are set to change the worldwide solar powered vitality scene. A portion of these promising innovations are now in the propelled phases of advancement, and could hit the market reasonably soon. With these developments, land required for solar […]
New solar panels advancements are set to change the worldwide solar powered vitality scene. A portion of these promising innovations are now in the propelled phases of advancement, and could hit the market reasonably soon. With these developments, land required for solar installation will be reduced drastically or unattractive rooftop spaces. (Stylishly engaging and profoundly proficient sun based shingles, for instance, are as of now making alluring sun oriented rooftops.)
What are transparent solar panels?
Photovoltaic glass is probably the most cutting-edge new solar panel technology that promises to be a game-changer in expanding the scope of solar. These are transparent solar panels that can literally generate electricity from windows—in offices, homes, car’s sunroof, or even smartphones. Blinds are another part of a building’s window that can generate electricity (we will discuss it in a later section).
Researchers at Michigan State University (MSU) originally created the first fully transparent solar concentrator in 2014. This clear solar panel could turn virtually any glass sheet or window into a PV cell. By 2020, the researchers in the U.S. and Europe have already achieved full transparency for the solar glass.
These transparent solar panels can be easily deployed in a variety of settings, ranging from skyscrapers with large windows to a mobile device such as a phone, a laptop, or an e-reader. As these solar power windows can simply replace the traditional glass windows in offices and homes, the technology holds the potential to virtually turn every building in the United States and the world into a solar producer.
How do solar panel windows work?
A transparent solar panel is essentially a counterintuitive idea because solar cells must absorb sunlight (photons) and convert them into power (electrons). When a solar glass is transparent, the sunlight will pass through the medium and defeat the purpose of utilizing sunlight. However, this new solar panel technology is changing the way solar cells absorb light.
The cell selectively harnesses a portion of the solar spectrum that is invisible to the naked eye, while allowing the normal visible light to pass through. To achieve this technological wonder, the researchers have developed the transparent luminescent solar concentrator (TLSC) rather than trying to do the impossible by creating a transparent photovoltaic glass cell.
The TLSC is composed of organic salts that are designed to absorb specific invisible UV and infrared light wavelengths, which then glow (luminesce) as another invisible wavelength. This new wavelength is then guided to the edge of the window plastic, which thin PV solar cell strips convert it into electricity.
Once the mass production begins for transparent solar panels, researchers estimate that the TLSC should be able to deliver an efficiency of about 10%. This may not appear to be an earth-shattering number, but on a national or global scale, when almost every window in a home or office building consists of clear solar panels, the results can be trans-formative.
As the transparent solar panels cost comes down with their mass production and deployment, this non-intrusive technology can be scaled right from commercial and industrial applications to handheld consumer devices, while remaining very affordable.
Types of transparent solar panels
Just the way solar roof panels are currently produced using different technologies (Tesla’s solar shingles and other technologies), solar windows are also being developed using different techniques. The two major types of transparent solar panels include partial and full transparent panels.
Partially transparent solar panels
A German manufacturer, Heliatek Gmb, has developed this partially clear solar panel, which can absorb about 60 percent of the sunlight it receives. Compared to the conventional solar PV cells, the partially transparent solar panels have a lower efficiency at 7.2%. However, solar power generation can be increased by adjusting the balance between the sunlight that is transmitted and absorbed.
For instance, in south-facing glass buildings, it is often important to reduce the transmitted light (many such office buildings already use tinted glass). In these locations, the partially transparent solar panel can work very well.
Fully transparent solar panels
As described in the beginning of this report, researchers at MSU have already achieved a breakthrough to produce fully transparent photovoltaic glass panels that resemble regular glass. Researchers estimate the efficiency of these fully transparent solar panels to be as high as 10% once their commercial production commences.
It’s vital to understand here that when it comes to solar panel windows, efficiency of the panel is not the be all and end all. In practical terms, a less efficient solar window only means that the window has to be larger in size compared to the more efficient panel in order to generate the same amount of electricity.
Once fully transparent solar panels get integrated into large windows in buildings, their lower efficiency is bound to be overcompensated by their potential scale of deployment.
Solar panel blinds: An easy-to-implement solar window technology
Solar panel blinds are a supplement to transparent solar glass/panels when using the window to generate electricity. Solar power panels are designed to harvest sunlight to produce energy, while the essential function of window blinds is to block direct sun’s rays from entering inside.
Solar panel blinds are cleverly combining these two divergent functions. An innovative startup called SolarGaps has introduced solar panel blinds, which it claims can cut down energy costs by up to 70 percent. For every 10 sq. ft. of window space, these solar window blinds can generate 100 watts of power (you could roughly power three laptops with this much electricity).
These solar blinds can be installed either inside or outside, and you can control their angle and positioning using an app that will also inform you of the energy generation figures. It includes a setting to automatically optimize the angle of the blinds according to the position of the sun.
Pioneers in transparent solar panel research and manufacturing
Researchers at Michigan State University and MIT as well as manufacturers such as Ubiquitous Energy, Physee, and Brite Solar are pioneers in promoting this new solar panel technology.
Ubiquitous Energy, in partnership with a leading glass manufacturer NSG Group, is developing Ubiquitous’s unique ClearView Power technology to integrate transparent solar panels into architectural glass windows. ClearView Power’s transparent solar coating can be directly applied to building windows at the time of the normal glass making process.
The technology also enhances energy efficiency of the buildings through blocking of infrared solar heat. When combined with solar energy generation through clear solar panels, it can lead to net-zero energy buildings. The company has already announced that ClearView Power’s transparent solar cells have reached an electricity conversion efficiency of 9.8%.
Physee is a European manufacturer that has introduced an advanced product called PowerWindow. In fact, it is the only currently installed transparent solar panel in the world right now (covering 300 sq. ft. in a Dutch bank building).
Physee’s PowerWindow makes use of small solar panels that are installed along the window pane edges to generate power. While these solar windows are unable to be a standalone power source for buildings yet, the company is confident of rapid improvements in the scale and efficiency of its transparent panels.
PowerWindows serve as the building blocks for “SmartSkin,” the clear photovoltaic glass that the company is promoting as the “future-proof glass façade for next-generation sustainable buildings.” SmartSkin can work autonomously to sense, power, and regulate the climate inside the building using intelligent systems.
The future of transparent solar technology
The potential to generate renewable, clean energy from the sun is enormous with transparent solar panels, considering the number of skyscrapers and buildings already in existence or under construction with a massive amount of glass surface .
According to Richard Lunt, the Johansen Crosby Endowed Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at MSU, highly transparent solar cells represent the “wave of the future” for new solar panel technologies.
Lunt says that these clear solar panels have a similar power-generation potential as rooftop solar, along with additional applications to improve the efficiency of buildings, cars and mobile devices. Lunt and his team estimate that the U.S. alone has about 5 to 7 billion square meters of glass surface at present. (Just in the last 10 years, as much as 682 million sq. ft. of office space has been added in the U.S.).
With this much of glass surface to cover, transparent solar panel technology has the potential to meet about 40 percent of the country’s annual energy demand. This potential is nearly the same as that of rooftop solar. When both these technologies are deployed complimentarily, it could help meet nearly 100 percent of the U.S. electricity needs if we also improve energy storage.
Battery management systems offer powerful tools to “see inside” battery banks and improve lifespan, reliability, safety and performance. A battery management system uses a specialized computer and sensors for batteries to be “smart” – and supply real-time information about their performance, along side data collection. How It Works […]
Battery management systems offer powerful tools to “see inside” battery banks and improve lifespan, reliability, safety and performance.
A battery management system uses a specialized computer and sensors for batteries to be “smart” – and supply real-time information about their performance, along side data collection.
How It Works
In short, a BMS analyses real-time measurements from the chemical battery, then adjusts charging/discharging parameters and communicates this information to end-users. These sensors can monitor battery voltage, state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), temperature and other critical measurements. they will even display charging time on an easy-to-read “fuel gauge.”
Applications of BMS
Battery management systems offer numerous benefits various battery chemistries (as explained below).
For these reasons, a BMS is employed frequently in off-grid applications and battery backup applications, including generators and power utilities, telecom, hospitals, data centers and more.
But for lithium-ion batteries, a BMS doesn’t just offer benefits; it’s an absolute safety requirement to scale back the likelihood of fires and explosions. That’s because li-ion has the very best power density, and overcharging lower-capacity cells can cause thermal runaway and combustion.
Thus, in li-ion batteries, BMS ensures battery cells operate within their ideal operations window (including temperature, current, voltage, maximum charge and discharge current limits, etc.). A BMS can even help ensure cells are balanced properly.
Main Advantages of BMS
Without BMS, battery operators often depend solely on routine maintenance to spot upcoming battery problems and determine when to rehab or replace batteries.
Battery monitoring systems supplement these efforts by capturing vital operating parameters, cell/unit voltage and current; resistance; cell/unit/ambient temperature; electrolyte levels; and more.
This data is automatically recorded and may be used for predictive maintenance and more accurate runtime estimates.
Battery monitoring systems offer several safety benefits, including:
* Remote monitoring and alarms
* Reducing maintenance – which minimizes users’ contact with high voltage
* Early warning for system failure, including dangerous conditions
* Battery disconnection just in case of failure or unsafe operating conditions
Easy Access To Key Information
The state of charge (SOC) indicator functions as a kind of “fuel gauge” that displays the usable amount of energy – almost like battery estimates in cellphones and laptops. This helps determine optimal charging and discharging.
And data logging capabilities allow systems to gather trending data and make reports. These tools leave estimations, long-term tracking and improved battery use. And remote access and software alarms can reduce maintenance and transit time and costs. This makes BMS ideal for commercial settings and vacation homes, where maintenance crews or owners might not always be onsite.
Reduced Maintenance and Replacement Costs
Even “maintenance-free” batteries require periodic inspection for optimal performance. And standalone battery management systems can supplement on-site inspections or owners’ maintenance efforts.
BMS not only optimizes charging/discharging and other variables; it also helps identify maintenance requirements and predict battery failure.
And BMS can improve lifespan, reducing the frequency and likelihood of battery replacement.
A feature referred to as Low-Voltage Shutoff can reduce maintenance and maximize lifespan, especially in remote applications where routine inspection is tougher.
Finally, cell voltage monitoring ensures that charge and discharge won’t exceed manufacturer’s recommendations.
Protection Against Extreme Temperatures (Extended Lifespan)
For every 15°F to 20°F below 80°F, batteries lose ~10% capacity – while PV production decreases and electrical demand increases. Conversely, every prolonged 15°F above 77°F halves battery lifespan.
A BMS uses sensors to watch ambient and battery temperature, allowing early warning when battery temperatures are outside optimal ranges. this will prolong lifespan and improve capacity.
These features are especially important in lithium-ion batteries, where temperature readings can influence whether A battery should be charged or discharged (to avoid thermal runaway).
Cell Balancing For Equal voltage
Ideal voltage depends on battery chemistry. But altogether cases, using batteries outside this voltage range can slash cell life.
In addition, each cell has slightly different voltage window where charging/discharging should occur, for long life and proper operation. Cold cells must be charged to a better voltage. And weak cells can prevent other cells from charging completely.
Some BMS systems can ensure equally charging among cells by measuring current and charge rate–and performing either passive or active cell balancing.
In addition, BMS allows for advanced, temperature-compensating (“smart”) charging, including float (fixed voltage over time), pulsed high current and more.
Knowledge is power. A battery management system can optimize battery reliability, safety, maintenance, performance and lifespan. So it’s going to be worth considering whether A battery management system could help save time, headaches and money. For more information, including key requirements and battery compatibility guidelines, contact your systems installer or battery manufacturer/supplier.
JinkoSolar has announced the official launch of its 2020 flagship Tiger Pro module series. Unveiled through a virtual product lunch, the Tiger Pro module series can generate a maximum power output of up to 580 W — 40% higher than current mainstream 72-cell […]
JinkoSolar has announced the official launch of its 2020 flagship Tiger Pro module series. Unveiled through a virtual product lunch, the Tiger Pro module series can generate a maximum power output of up to 580 W — 40% higher than current mainstream 72-cell modules.
The Tiger Pro modules use half-cut cells, nine busbars and tiling/shingling ribbon technology to improve performance. Efficiencies have been recorded at 21.6%. The Tiger Pro line features both mono- and bifacial modules. Mass production should commence in Q3.
“The global PV market is rapidly moving toward high-performance modules to reduce system costs and initial upfront capital investment, so it was time to consolidate our competitiveness by leveraging our ability to rapidly begin mass producing cutting-edge products,” said Mr. Kangping Chen, JinkoSolar’s CEO. “We always modify our designs based on customer feedback and market response because designing high-efficiency products in the lab is one thing, but ramping up to mass production drives the entire industry forward together towards grid parity. With various types of modules, Tiger Pro series enables the construction of more powerful and efficient solar power farms that will bring higher return on investment for projects with larger technical and efficiency requirements.”
News item from JinkoSolar